Open Access

Table 4

Illustration of quasi-experimental design with DD specification for estimating intervention effect (∆) in a cancer study.

  Pre-intervention period Post-intervention period DD
SAT at the system level CR10 CR11
ECA at the system level CR00 CR01
1st difference Δ0 = CR10 − CR00 Δ1 = CR11 − CR01 Δ = Δ1 − Δ0

SAT: single arm trial; ECA: external control arm; CR: (average) complete response (0/1); DD: difference-in-differences.

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